Centrifugal Pump How It Is Used Applications and Types
Centrifugal pump is a positive displacement pump having vanes that rotate in a casing and moves the fluid around so that it acquires higher momentum to discharge from its extreme and into a volute casing which surrounds the impeller and which the fluid is conducted to the discharge pipe. There are three general categories that centrifugal pumps fall into: mixed flow, axial flow, and radial flow. Axial flow centrifugal pumps are centrifugal pumps that use the direct action of the impeller on the liquid to develop pressure. Radial centrifugal pumps are centrifugal pumps that completely use centrifugal force to develop pressure. Mixed centrifugal pumps are centrifugal pumps that use both centrifugal force and the action of the impeller on the liquid to develop pressure.
Centrifugal pumps can use many sources for a power supply, including AC power, DC power, natural gas, steam, water, gasoline, and solar power. Some centrifugal pumps, when purchased, do not include a power source. Instead, they only include the pump mechanism, and either a drive shaft or another mechanical device that later connects to a power source. Many different industries employ centrifugal pumps for varied uses according to the industry. For example: cryogenics use centrifugal pumps in extreme cold applications; dairy farmers use centrifugal pumps to keep their product at the proper temperatures, hot and cold; electric utility companies use centrifugal pumps, or turbines, to produce energy; food service, construction, distillery, and automotive companies are a few more examples of industries that employee centrifugal pumps for their many applications. Centrifugal pumps are used in nearly every industry available today.
Keeping the centrifugal pump well-maintained will prolong its life and add quality and to its functionality. In a simpler definition, it can be defined as a mechanical device used to transfer various types of liquids. It converts the energy moved by a prime mover such as an electric motor, steam turbine, or gasoline engine to energy within the liquid being pumped.
How it works
The centrifugal pump consists of a rotating impeller inside a stationary casing.
- Liquid enters the pump through the suction inlet and passes through the eye of the impeller.
- The speed of the rotating impeller then forces the liquid out through the discharge Nozzle.
- The liquid enters the inlet of the centrifugal pump under atmospheric pressure and flows into the eye of the impeller.
- The centrifugal force exerted on the liquid away from the impeller eye and out along the impeller vanes to their extreme tip where the liquid is then forced against the inside walls of the volute and out through the discharge of the pump.
Applications of Centrifugal Pumps
They are commonly used in the manufacturing industries, agriculture, power generation plants, petroleum industries and more.
- Centrifugal pumps are unique because they can provide high or very high flow rates.
- Centrifugal pumps can cover a very wide range of liquid pumping applications.
- They are designed for liquids with relatively low viscosity that pours like water or very light oil.
- Centrifugal pumps are also used in buildings for pumping the general water supply.
- Also used as a booster and for domestic water supplies.
- They can also be used for pumping sewage and slurry.
- Used in Fire protection systems and for heating and cooling applications. There are many types of centrifugal pumps and the most common types are explained below:
1.Long coupled centrifugal pumps:This includes a coupling between the pump shaft and the motor shaft. They are the most common type of centrifugal pumps because the motors used are readily available especially in the larger horsepower sizes.
2.Close coupled centrifugal pumps: They do not require coupling alignment.
3.Straight centrifugal pumps which are subdivided into cast iron centrifugal pumps, cast stainless and steel centrifugal pumps, and ANSI centrifugal pumps which are built with heavy duty bearings, shafts, top center line discharge and other features for long life and less maintenance.
4.Self-running centrifugal pumps– These are unique pumps which are capable of lifting liquids as high as 15 feet, 20feet, or 25 feet from underground tanks, pits, rivers etc.
5.Thermoplastic Centrifugal pumps– They offer excellent chemical resistance, no corrosion and are economical.
6.Engine-Driven self-Priming centrifugal pumps– These are pumps that have cast iron, stainless steel or thermoplastic casings/impellers
Multistage centrifugal pumps which are available in vertical configurations and in horizontal configurations. Multi stage centrifugal pumps include multiple impellers which allows for much higher discharge pressure heads.
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